Where Do You Find Inspiration?

I know it has been quite a long time since I posted anything but my blog muse has been having anger management issues so the things I wrote, I really could not post.

As many of you know, recently the media has been continuing the “violent veteran/soldier narrative.” This makes me absolutely crazy. But as I struggled with biting my tongue, then writing angry blog posts, then deleting those posts before publishing and began the cycle all over, I realized as I would check my twitter feed and my facebook newsfeed that the majority of pages and people that I follow for the purpose of helping me find inspiration and keeping me grounded have been posted by current and former military.

I have found that those who do not hesitate to sacrifice themselves for the sake of others, those who have faced trauma and death and survived, are the most amazing people I have known and have the most valuable messages to share.

Our experiences help shape us into the people that we are today. Yes, there are some aspects of my past that I wish I could have avoided but then I would not be who I am today. So we all must struggle to find our strength, we sometimes have to lose everything before realizing how anything is truly possible, sometimes we must speak for those who have no voice. And when in the presence of true bravery and heroes, I find myself shamed that I did not volunteer.

And while my life is very far from perfect, it could be a lot worse and with that, I look to those others for the inspiration to keep going when it feels like too much. I look for the laughter in life to help lift my spirit. I look to those who have fought, have sacrificed, have struggled, and have the courage and fortitude to continue on when others have not. I find that in our military, past and present. I am truly humbled by the sacrifices that they make, that their families make, and that those who are no longer with us have made. I value my freedom and I pray for our soldiers and veterans every day. I know what this life could be if we did not have them defending our freedom and rights. I support them any way I can.

So when I struggle, I think about Jason Redman’s sign on the door, I think about Dakota Meyer discussing his suicide attempt, I think about Bryan A. Wood’s struggle with coming home and becoming a civilian again, I think about Marcus Luttrell and all he endured with Operation Red Wings and he continued on with the teams and continues on with the Patriot Tour and the Lone Survivor Foundation to make sure that everyone remembers, I think about the family of Michael P. Murphy and the life he lived before he gave it in defense of our freedoms, I think about Christopher Heben chasing down the gunmen in Ohio before seeking medical attention for his gunshot wound, I think about Mylee YC and her battle with breast cancer and PTSD, I think about Christopher Van Etten and Alex Minsky and Bobby Henline and others who now have combat-modified bodies. I think about those whose names I do not know, those who I’ve heard about from these survivors and from others. I think about the men at my Grandpa’s VFW, those who shared their stories and pictures and their time, and who turned me into their little mascot. I can think of so many examples of soldiers and veterans doing good, living the life of a true role model and hero, yet their stories go untold by the media.

This is where my inspiration comes from. This is from where I draw my strength. So when I hear about stories talking about correlations between PTSD and violent soldiers and veterans or that ridiculous New York Times op-ed attempting to correlate veterans with white supremacists, I am offended. I get angry. I want to scream at the top of my lungs and say, YOU ARE WRONG! And they are wrong. But we don’t see those corrections. We don’t see coverage of those who stand up and say, “you got the facts wrong.” Correlation does not imply causation. I teach this to my students. The media and the author of that New York Times op-ed needs to learn this. They need to realize that their poor coverage and false information has an impact in society. It encourages employers not to hire veterans, it further stigmatizes PTSD, combat stress, and anxiety leading to the horribly high numbers of veteran and soldier suicides, it leads to homeless veterans, it leads to veterans languishing in the red tape of bureaucracy only to die waiting for an appointment at the VA, it leads to politicians repeatedly calling for armed action and sending our brave men and women into battle, yet cutting funding or denying funding or capping funding for treatment when they come home.

It makes me angry, it makes me rage, but I can turn it around and use it as a teaching moment. I can use my meager resources to get the facts out, to organize for change and to inform others to not be passive consumers hypnotized by the sensationalizing media, but to critically analyze, to use critical thinking skills to get the facts, to question, to say “we are not doing enough, we must do more for those who sacrifice for our freedom,” to become involved in the political process, to call out media outlets and hold them accountable for shoddy research and reports, to exercise those rights that I hold dear, those rights that so many have and continue to fight and die for. I know what I do is not enough, it will never be enough to truly express the depth of my gratitude for their sacrifice but I will continue on, I will continue to support them in any way, no matter how small, I will continue to fight for them, I will continue to make sure their stories live on and that those who have sacrificed have not done so in vain.

So as we approach Memorial Day and honor those who gave all, think about where you find your inspiration and look at some of the amazing people out there sharing messages of survival, hope, love, faith, and tolerance. You may find yourself surprised at how many of them currently or at one time have worn a military uniform.

Veterans Day 11 November 2013

As many of you know, I am a proud supporter of our military and veterans. I have the utmost respect for the sacrifices that they make and am so grateful for the freedom that they fight to defend. Last year, I spoke about the fact that many schools have opted out of celebrating Veterans Day, which I still find truly appalling, especially when they take time to celebrate Columbus Day, a day celebrating a man for bringing about the genocide of Native Americans and introducing slavery to North America (click here for last year’s blog post).

When we look at US society, what does it tell us about how we treat our veterans? Well, we celebrate by offering an optional Federal holiday (see last year’s post containing my fury over schools opting out of recognizing Veterans Day) and offering a multitude of sales for non-veterans and service members. There are those companies that offer free meals and discounts to veterans and active duty military on Veterans Day but those don’t nearly stand out to me as much as the companies that offer discounts throughout the year. Yes, Veterans Day is celebrated on Nov. 11, but is that the only day we should thank our veterans for their service and sacrifice? HELL NO! As a rule, veterans are not looking for handouts and charity. Recognition for the service and sacrifices that they made mean so much more. Letting them know that they matter, that they may have seen and experienced atrocities that civilians cannot even come close to imagining and survived is just one of the ways in which these men and women are heroes. But even more importantly, treating them like human beings, talking to them like normal people and not some media-created scary figure that will at any moment freak out in a fit of violent PTSD.

The truth is any exposure to trauma can lead a person to suffer from PTSD. It is not something that only occurs among the military although the media over-represents military in their PTSD coverage. Not everyone with PTSD engage in violent behavior, although again our popular media over-represents the correlation between violence and PTSD. Would you stop buying ice cream in the summer months when you learn of the strong positive correlation between ice cream sales and homicide rates in the summer months? No (that is a spurious correlation ignoring the important variable of temperature and remember correlation does not equal causation). Thus we should not treat our veterans and military with suspicion because of the popular media’s skewed reporting of information.

We are not doing our veterans any favors by perpetuating the myth of the violent and out-of-control veteran. In truth, it reflects very poorly on us civilians as well because rather than embrace the men and women who sacrifice so much for our freedoms, we would rather turn our backs to them and keep them segregated from society whether it is through unemployment, homelessness, or discrimination of other forms. Being a veteran should be a badge of honor not something a person seeks to hide for fear of discrimination. Here is a blog post by Kate Holt that was posted on 6 March 2012 that is worth reading: “The ‘Dangerous’ Veteran: An Inaccurate Media Narrative Takes Hold.”

We have a long way to go in our society regarding the treatment of our military and veterans. We civilians should be embracing the skills and characteristics that are honed and necessary for military service. We should remember and honor those who have given the ultimate sacrifice. We should help our military and veterans reintegrate into society by accepting their perspectives as valid, by acknowledging the strength they have to endure, by respecting their service and sacrifice, and by integrating them into jobs and schools. We can learn so much from these brave men and women and the fact that society chooses not to is very disappointing. As an educator, it is my duty to facilitate the learning of my students and foster the critical thinking skills necessary to succeed in life. As a society, we have a duty to accept all members of society and not turn our backs on those who we ask to make the ultimate sacrifice only to revile them for their actions when they return survivors.

I try to make it a point to speak with at least one veteran a day besides my family members and friends who have and are currently serving. I try to ensure that issues that affect our troops and veterans remain at the forefront of our consciousness by sharing information about some of the amazing programs out there, including but not limited to Wounded Warrior Project, Team Rubicon, The Mission Continues, Operation Gratitude, and The Gary Sinise Foundation. It is the very least I can do to express my gratitude for the freedom that I enjoy.

To the veterans and active-duty military I offer my most sincere thank you for your service and sacrifice. I know that I would not be here today if it were not for you and I would not enjoy the life I live if it were not for your sacrifice. Thank you very much from the bottom of my heart. Stay safe and be well.

Cover Reveal: Back to You by Jessica Scott

We first met Trent and Laura in “Because of You” and “Anything For You”

Coming soon from Jessica Scott, Trent and Laura’s story “Back to You”

BackToYou_ FINAL_revised2

From the back cover:

He’s in for the fight of his life . . .

Army captain Trent Davila loved his wife, Laura, and their two beautiful children. But when he almost lost his life in combat, something inside him died. He couldn’t explain the emptiness he felt or bridge the growing distance between him and his family—so he deployed again. And again. And again…until his marriage reaches its breaking point. Now, with everything on the line, Trent has one last chance to prove to his wife that he can be the man she needs …if she’ll have him

to win back his only love.

            Laura is blindsided when Trent returns home. Time and again, he chose his men over his family, and she’s just beginning to put the pieces of her shattered heart back together.  But when Trent faces a court martial on false charges, only Laura can save him. What begins as an act of kindness to protect his career inflames a desire she thought long buried—and a love that won’t be denied.  But can she trust that this time he’s back to stay?

Pre-Order your copy today!

Winning At All Costs Should Not Be An Acceptable Societal Value

I am a sports fan. I am a diehard Chicago Blackhawks fan and Pittsburgh Steelers fan. Across professional sports world-wide, there is the issue of athletes using performance-enhancing drugs. These may be in the form of steroids, human growth hormone, various stimulants, etc. What I cannot comprehend is that as fans we tolerate this form of cheating. There is no other way to look at someone who uses performance-enhancing drugs/substances other than that they are cheating. The players that I admire the most are those who work hard every single game and practice and who treat their fans well. It sickens me to hear about kids who catch a ball at a professional game only to have security come by to take it away or when you have to pay to meet a professional athlete for an autograph. It makes me nuts. These are the people that society holds up as role models and sadly so many lack the values that role models should hold. The true role models and heroes of society are found in our military, first responders, health care professions (not administrators but nurses and doctors), educators, and so on. You get my point. Here we have individuals who are chosen to compete in the professional arena, given an unbelievably high salary (notice that I did not say earn), and other perks “just because” they are a professional athlete. Explain to me the reasoning why someone who earns $30 million a year gets free shoes while our veterans find themselves homeless and unemployed upon leaving the military? Why does someone who works one or more jobs earning minimum wage have to shell out the money for shoes when an athlete who earns $30 million a year gets the freebie? Does anyone else see this as wrong? But I digress.

Our society holds these professional athletes up as heroes and role models and yet they are allowed to cheat. Not only cheat, but get inducted into the hall of fame of said profession. They keep their money and fame with maybe a slap on the wrist.

In general, I am not a fan of zero tolerance policies. They do not allow for the individual to build internal behavior management skills and they do not account for individual circumstances. However, I feel the advantages of large scale behavior modification of a group, insuring consequences, and insuring uniform consequences for all offenders outweigh the negatives when it comes to performance-enhancing drug use and professional athletes. Every time I see a professional baseball player throw a hissy fit, I want him to go and pee in a cup to check for steroid use. Every time, a professional basketball player starts fighting like suddenly they are playing ice hockey, they need to pee in a cup to check for steroid use. If you fail, that is it. No three strikes rule, no warnings, you are done. You are out! You are out of the profession, you are exempt from endorsement deals, any records you hold should be removed and wiped clean, and you are exempt from induction into the hall of fame. Pete Rose is prohibited from induction into the baseball hall of fame because of his gambling past. Why is gambling considered less honorable that substance use? Both involve cheating (if Pete Rose influenced players based on bets he placed). Why is there a zero tolerance policy against gambling but not substance use and cheating? Using corked bats is cheating. The moment Sammy Sosa’s bat broke revealing cork, that should have been the end of his career. Barry Bonds has no business holding records when he was using performance-enhancing drugs.

Bottom line, it is cheating. What message does this send our kids when it is okay for professional athletes not only to cheat, but to earn big bucks because of it? In light of the sad values that our society seems to be pushing forth, it is unsurprising that I have encountered more cases of plagiarism among my students in the past 2 years compared to my overall 14 years of teaching experience. The message becomes one of: use whatever methods necessary to earn as much money as possible and win. Try not to get caught but if you do, hire expensive attorneys to get out of it. What happened to accountability? What happened to honor? Maybe I expect too much of the role models in our society. Perhaps that is why I do not call any celebrity or professional athlete a hero. I reserve that treasured honor for those who sacrifice themselves for the greater good, those who dedicate themselves to the bettering of society, not the inflation of a personal savings account.

I know it seems that I am picking on baseball, but I am the first to admit that cheaters are found in all sports including my beloved ice hockey and American football league. If it turned out that my favorite player was found to be using performance-enhancing drugs, I would want him/her to suffer the consequences.

As a sports fan, I am very disappointed that the professional leagues are not taking a harder line on cheating. I do not believe that winning at any cost is a value that our society should hold dear. The ramifications of such a value are seen daily from the world economic crisis (thank you CEO bankers for screwing up the world economy and keeping your bonuses while fleecing American tax payers of their hard-earned money and homes; the CEOs & other top-level administrators should not only be fired, but be forced to repay the taxpayers and serve prison time) to educators dealing with issues of plagiarism to children dealing with bullying to the overall societal acceptance of hazing as an appropriate way to induct members into a group. We need to bring attention to true heroes of our society. We need to place more emphasis on life-affirming activities and values rather than on individualistic and materialistic values. At what point are we going to say “Enough!” to the cheaters of society and demand accountability and restitution? Based on the current trends, not soon enough.

 

Mental Health Awareness Month

Compared to other countries, the U.S. is definitely more accepting of mental health issues however, there remains a strong negative stigma associated with mental health issues. For anyone who has ever been treated for anxiety, depression, even flying phobias, your medical records will indicate that you were treated for a mental illness and thus labeled as uninsurable according to the health insurance companies. Health care is not considered a human right in the U.S., the land of the free.  I will table my tirade and comments on the U.S. health care system for another time. It is these types of obstacles that feed into the negative stigma of mental illness and further dissuade people from seeking help.

For some reason, it is seen as a sign of weakness to seek help for a wide number of things from help with parenting, relationship issues, depression, job issues, etc.  And that is just naming a very limited few of the issues that civilians may battle. How about individuals who work in high-stress jobs or jobs that may require the taking of another life or exposure to the absolute worst examples of humanity – i.e. air traffic controllers, police officers, firefighters, nurse, doctors, paramedics, and of course, our soldiers? If an individual who works as an administrative assistant views seeking counseling for anxiety as a sign of weakness, what about the individual who is expected to be the brave ones, the first responders, the defenders of freedom, the life savers? We need to eliminate this stigma.

Some may argue that they see no problem. It is up to an individual to take care of himself/herself. I disagree. This stigma has resulted in high unemployment for groups of individuals who may be viewed as mentally ill or unstable, which leads to high poverty rates and homelessness for these individuals (as a result of joblessness and inability to obtain health insurance to cover medical care and possible medications), and in a small number of cases, individuals may resort to violence. Unfortunately, the media plays a terrible role in all of this. By sensationalizing the small number of incidents of violence perpetrated by someone who may be suffering from a mental health issue, the media has stoked the fire of fear in our society against those who are suffering from mental health issues, even though most of them are non-violent. Further, by portraying only the violent symptoms that some (not all) soldiers, veterans, first responders, and others who suffer from PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder), these men and women often find themselves discriminated against in anything from finding a job to adopting a child.

Some politicians have called for legislation to be passed that restricts the rights of individuals who suffer from mental illness. What they do not seem to understand is that mental illness is not a fixed, static category of disorders and conditions. The official classification system is found in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) published by the American Psychiatric Association. Since its first publication in 1952, it has undergone several updates and revisions. Over the years, conditions have been added and removed from the classification system of mental illness. For example, homosexuality was considered a mental disorder until it was officially removed from the classification in 1986. Another example is with ADHD (Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) which officially appeared in 1980 but partially appeared in 1968 under a different designation (hyperkinetic reaction of childhood). The next DSM will be released this month with several changes including the addition of gambling disorder and changes in the definition of PTSD. See the American Psychiatric Association website for more information.

The bottom line is that mental illness is viewed as a sign of weakness, a form of deviance from social norms, and treated with fear and avoidance. There is no shame in asking for help. The world has changed dramatically and even civilians may experience traumatic events that may forever change their outlook and mental health. Do we punish those who witness acts of violence? In theory, no, in practice yes and it is done through the continued discrimination and negative portrayal of mental illness. This needs to stop and the sooner the better. If the media insist on sensationalizing mental illness, they MUST get their facts straight and present all of the information, not just what will attract the most viewers and be considered the most scintillating. Society must be shown and educated about mental health issues. We need to spread the news about how inaccurate the media’s portrayal and resulting societal treatment of the mentally ill is damaging our society, not only socially, but within the judicial, economic, and education institutions among others. We need to promote tolerance and respect not fear and ignorance.  And for those battling with what may be considered mental health issues, remember that you are not alone.

Here are some links that may be of interest:

Bryan A. Wood “Sometimes The Hardest Part to Going to War is Coming Home”

Myke Cole “What PTSD Is”

Kate Holt “The ‘Dangerous’ Veteran: An Inaccurate Media Narrative Takes Hold”

Veterans Crisis Line

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Finding Help for Mental Illness

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)

Suicide Awareness Voices of Education (SAVE)

National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI)

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Mental Health

Mental Health Help Hotlines

The Blame Game

The explosions at the Boston Marathon today were an act of cowardice. It is truly horrible that we live in a world where congregating in groups makes you a target for terrorists. But sadly, this is the world we live in. We need to stay vigilant and not get so bent out of shape over security measures aimed at keeping people safe. Inconvenient? Maybe but in the end, if it ensures safety, I’d opt for that inconvenience. When I was in Belfast, Northern Ireland, I saw first hand the security measures in place to help deter attacks and protect civilians. When it came time for me to leave, upon entering the airport, I was met in a large room that only had one empty table and 4 fully armed British soldiers, all aiming their automatic weapons at me as I was frisked and my bags emptied and examined. While I was not exceptionally pleased at looking down the barrel of 3 automatic rifles while the 4th soldier examined my luggage, I must say that once I was allowed to continue into the airport, I felt more secure than I have felt walking down the streets of Chicago. Bottom line is that these security protocols are suggested and implemented to ensure safety so instead of arguing with those that are doing their jobs and putting their lives at risk to protect the civilians, we should thank them for their vigilance.

As I watched on television the coverage of the aftermath of the explosions in Boston today, I was struck by a few things. The first and most notable was the dozens of people who ran towards the blasts to offer help. These are true heroes to join our first responders at a time of uncertainty and chaos. While I find so many daily examples of incidents that make me weep for humanity, watching those brave people give me hope for the future. Maybe there are more heroes out there than we know. Maybe we are personally capable of doing more than we think we would. I should stop here but I feel it is necessary for me to address the parts that do make me weep for humanity.

Several news stations continually ran photographic and video footage of the explosions and the areas after the explosions on loops for hours. If the reporters had pointed out the people running to assist the wounded, I may not have been so cranky about this but I did not hear a single mention of that. Instead, our attention was repeatedly drawn to the wounded themselves as well as the blasts. Next come the talking heads discussion who is to blame and attacking the vocabulary used by government officials in this aftermath. I hope that we elect officials who we feel are competent in their jobs and as leaders, it is essential to remain calm in the face of chaos and disorder. It is essential for our sanity to not jump to conclusions and speak on official terms as to what you may personally be thinking is happening within minutes and even hours after chaotic events. We want answers, I know, but how many times do we go after officials months, even years later as to how they reported inaccurate and untrue information following tragedy? Too many. In the interest of spreading truthful information, it is best not to jump to conclusions. Finally, this is not a time to jump on some political bandwagon to get your agenda sponsored. I was immediately greeted with several graphics and statements about how gun control contributed to the events at the Boston marathon. Any soldier in the military knows that a gun does not protect you from a bomb that you are unaware of. I mean, really, there are many more important items to report on and pay attention to rather than try to use such a tragedy as the groundwork for any political platform, liberal or conservative.

So stop your hate-mongering and let’s come together in support of those whose lives have been altered by the events of today. Let’s focus on the heroes of today and not the race, ethnicity, religion, or nationality of the unknown perpetrators. I have confidence that the individual or individuals will be brought to justice.

So it is with sadness that I must share the following links with you once again as our nation struggles in the aftermath of tragedy. Please be cognizant of who is watching this news footage and take the time to talk to and have a true, conversation with your children about these events.

Here are links for parents and teachers to help with talking to children of all ages about such tragic events as well as for those who may find these events and their coverage to trigger emotional distress. There is no shame in seeking help.

Talking With Kids About News

Helping Students Navigate a Violent World by Sean McCollum

Listen, Protect and Connect: Psychological First Aid for Teachers and Schools (www.ready.gov)

American Psychological Association “Talking to Your Children About the Recent Spate of School Shootings”

National Association of School Psychologists Resources

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention “Coping with Stress”

SAMHSA Coping After Traumatic Events Helpline 1-800-985-5990

My thoughts and prayers go out to all of the families of the victims and survivors as they cope with this tragic event. My thanks go out to all of the first responders who risk their lives every day and face the horrors that some members of society insist on perpetrating on the innocent. Thank you to the good Samaritans who ran towards the blasts to help the victims. And finally, my most humblest thank you and appreciation to the men and women of of armed forces, whether active duty or veteran. Your sacrifice is not in vain. I appreciate the risks you take not only physically but psychologically in doing what so many others lack the fortitude to do. Thank you and stay safe.

The Case Against Torture

I have struggled with whether to write about this subject on this particular blog for several months now, but I am itching to get my opinion out there beyond my student and colleague base. To start with, I must admit that I still have not seen the 2012 film “Zero Dark Thirty” directed by Kathryn Bigelow, which has brought the effectiveness of torture to the attention of the mass media.

Let’s start with what is torture. Torture is the when emotional, psychological, and/or physical stress is applied to the body. The goal is to not only produce pain (physical, emotional, and/or psychological) but to increase the anticipation of future pain and distress. In some cases, torture is employed as a method of extracting information. Additionally, it is done as a form of entertainment for the torturer or others. It may also be employed as a method of revenge. I have tried to define torture to encompass all forms that are found not only in contemporary times but in historical times.

There is a long history of the use of torture in human history and in many cases, the torture and response of the tortured has been well documented, i.e. during the Spanish Inquisition. Torture has been used by governments and other powerful groups to extract information and has been purportedly employed by the British Government, the Argentinian Government, as well as the U.S. government in the battles against paramilitary organizations, terrorist organizations, and against the general populace to discourage seditious ideologies.

The main argument with torture is: do the ends justify the means? In my opinion, NO. The general thought experiment is if you have someone in custody who has information about a bomb or attack that may lead to the deaths of thousands of civilians, would you use torture to get the information to prevent this attack? First of all, this is a highly unlikely and completely hypothetical scenario. Secondly, how do you know this person is indeed reliable, meaning having the desired knowledge? While you may encounter situations where valuable information is gained for the short term, in the long term, this tactic will undermine the legitimacy of your movement and ideology. I refer you to the 1966 film “The Battle of Algiers” directed by Gillo Pontecorvo, in particular to the Criterion Collection’s three-disc special edition. Included is a roundtable discussion of torture by Richard A. Clarke, Michael A. Sheehan, and moderated by Christopher E. Isham.

In any conflict, victory not only relies upon the exertion of power and domination over your opponent but also in gaining the support of the sympathizers of your enemy. Torture does not gain sympathy. In many cases, in the pursuit of information, innocent and uninvolved citizens may be tortured. What happens to those individuals upon release if they are released or even to their family members and social groups once they become aware of the torture? They tend to sympathize not with the side of the torturer but the other side. What you effectively do is promote the ideology and build the support base for your enemy by demonstrating the barbaric methods you employ to gain information.  The conflict in Northern Ireland would be a good example. When overt violence is perpetrated against a civilian or group of civilians, you lose legitimacy and support. On January 31, 1972, the event known as Bloody Sunday occurred in Derry, Northern Ireland. The Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association planned a peaceful march to protest gerrymandering of election lines and inequality among employment and housing practices. The British government responded by sending paratroopers to overlook the march. At one point during the march, the paratroopers began firing upon the unarmed crowd, successfully ending the peaceful civil rights movement and building the ranks and support for the Provisional Irish Republican Army. Several inquiries later over several decades, it was finally uncovered that indeed the civilians were unarmed contrary to initial reports by the British government. This was a black spot in British and Irish history and marked the beginning of one of the most deadly years in the history of the Troubles. I refer you to the writings of Tim Pat Coogan, John McGarry, and Brendan O’Leary and the 2002 film “Bloody Sunday” directed by Paul Greengrass. Please note that I have many more references for this information, but for the sake of space and time, I am noting just a few. A fictional depiction of the impact torture has on a movement can be found in the 2006 film “Catch a Fire” directed by Phillip Noyce which takes place during the time of Apartheid in South Africa.

Finally, the issue of reliable information comes to the forefront in any discussion of torture. Any well-organized paramilitary organization, government-sponsored or trained or otherwise, will train its soldiers in methods to survive torture without compromising the overall mission or information. It may not have the capability to train all soldiers, but certainly the ones with the most valuable and accurate information will be trained to withstand torture while maintaining the integrity of their mission and movement. How does one do this? First by providing information that is of low value but may be verified as being true, and then give information that might be of high value (true or not) but cannot be appropriately verified. Thus, the torturer has a problem with deciding to act on the information they have procured because it is unclear whether this information is true and accurate.

In regards to the issue of the U.S. war on terror and the use of torture, I stand by my statement that torture should not be used if we want to avoid future attacks. Ultimately, this will defeat any attempt the U.S. makes in trying to demonstrate that the democratic values that we uphold are superior or in the best interests of human rights than our enemies. By using torture, we automatically become hypocrites in any suggestion that we stand in defense of human rights. The only way to gain ground in this protracted conflict is to demonstrate how our ideology supports human rights and life-affirming and life-enhancing peaceful initiatives.

As someone who has lost friends in the September 11, 2001 attacks as well as in the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq following these attacks, my personal resolve to find justice for the loss of life is quite strong. However, whenever we are embroiled in an emotionally-charged situation dealing with issues that we are passionate about, it is important to step back and think about the issue from a rational perspective if we truly want redemption and not simply revenge. So much attention since 2001 has been placed on international terrorist organizations such as Al Qaeda but the bottom line is that the U.S. has suffered more attacks and more loss of civilians perpetrated by domestic terrorist organizations than international terrorist organizations. We need to set our emotions aside and step back to look at this issue from a distance. Not only should we consider any short-term gains from the tactics employed but also the long-term consequences of our choices in tactics. We need to consider the experiences of other organizations engaged in similar conflicts and assess the effectiveness of the approaches and tactics used. Bottom line, torture is not effective as a method of extracting information. Its long-term consequences will inevitably erode our legitimacy, the information procured may not be accurate and reliable, and finally, we will continue to support the use of violence in its most barbaric forms as a method of solving problems. It is no wonder that so many individuals in recent times have resorted to the use of violence as a method of revenge or making some type of personal or political statement. The cost is the loss of innocent lives from Aurora, CO to Newtown, CT.